Iron is a problem usually associated with borehole water supplies. Iron can be found in water in two states. Water containing ‘ferrous’ iron usually clear when it comes out of the ground but becomes cloudy or red when it meets air, converting the iron to its ‘ferric’ state. The presence of iron in ground water is usually from natural process and abundant existence (Daughney and Reeves, 2005).
This study was conducted in Mbala district of Zambia. The district occupies a strategic location close to the border with Tanzania.
The study was conducted in order to improve the living standards of the people of Mbala by providing clean drinking water for hygiene and sanitation. The challenge however is providing clean drinking water particularly with Iron levels less than the World Health Organisation limit of 0.3mg/l which is adopted by the Zambia bureau of standards. The study focused on the geology of the study area as a probable source of iron but went further to compare within the same geology the two types of materials used in the construction of the water boreholes in the area. The two types of materials by which the boreholes were named are stainless steel bores and galvanised steel boreholes.
During data collection, primary data was collected through focus group interviews in order to record the impact the presence of iron in the water has had on the water users. This was done by the administration of questionnaires. The Global positioning system and pH of the water was recorded and measured in-situ. The photometric method was used to measure the amount of iron in each of the 100mls of water collected from the boreholes though laboratory analysis. It was expected that the values of the concentration of iron would be below the WHO standards but the values were so high for both types of bores that water security is threatened in the area and possess as a challenge in meeting the sustainable development goal number six.
In conclusion, the stainless-steel riser piped boreholes showed to contain more iron concentration than galvanised steel riser piped boreholes. 


Borehole, galvanising, Iron, stainless steel, water.


Daughney, C.J. and Reeves, R. R. 2005. Definition of HydrochemicalFacies in the New Zealand National: 105-13
Delwar and M.K Huda, 1997. “ Journal of civil engineering”. The institute of engineering, Bangladesh, vol. CE 25, no. 2, page 4-8
Hughes, S. S., & Thackray, G. D. 1999. Guidebook to the geology of eastern Idaho.Pocatello: Idaho Museum of Natural History. -Geology section.ISBN 0-937834-64-5. 47-60